我们将讨论和评估抑郁症的认知和生物学方法以及现有的治疗方法。抑郁症是一种常见的精神疾病，它的影响可以导致很多人感到孤独，在日常活动中失去兴趣或乐趣，个人会感到后悔，并有自卑的感觉，失去睡眠或食欲，注意力不集中。根据国家统计局”,2014年,19.7%的人口在英国16岁以上显示抑郁症的症状,比2013年增长了1.5%,这个比例中女性(22.5%)比男性(16.8%)”的健康问题,据官方数据显示,抑郁症是自杀的主要组件之一,它是“估计,6213年自杀事件发生在2017年的英国和爱尔兰共和国。(Ian Macrory, 2016)许多人都认为抑郁并不是脆弱或脆弱的标志。通过正确的治疗和护理，许多抑郁症患者能够完全康复，继续他们的生活。对抑郁症的认知方法表明，抑郁症患者往往对世界持悲观态度，这在理论上被称为消极模式。它被认为是在儿童时期获得的。这些因素通常在新情况出现时被激活，这类似于学习图式时的最初遭遇。来自美国的精神病学家亚伦·贝克(Aaron Beck)教授通过创建三个缺陷点(模式)来说明抑郁是如何起作用的，这三个缺陷点可以控制人们的思维。其中一种模式是自我价值，个体会有一种不适当的感觉他们根本就不适合。自尊是另一种模式，会导致个人认为他/她所有的经历都是失败或失败，最后一种模式是未来，个人的未来是没有意义的。总的来说，所有提到的主题都是消极认知三元组的一部分，当这些信念出现在一个人的认知中时，抑郁就很有可能发生(如果它还没有发生的话)。除了功能失调思想的负面内容，这些信念还会扭曲和塑造人们所关注的事物。亚伦·贝克断言，抑郁的人会选择性地关注他们所处环境的某些方面，这些方面证实了他们已经知道的事情。这种注意力不集中的情况称为错误的信息处理。信息处理的特别失败是抑郁心理的典型特征。一个例子是，抑郁症患者在收集信息时表现出挑剔的注意力，这表明了个体的消极预期。埃利斯采用了不同于贝克的方法来解释抑郁症，他开始解释，良好的心理健康是理性思考的结果，可以让人快乐和痛苦的自由，而抑郁症是非理性思考的结果。
We will be discussing and evaluating the cognitive and biological approach to depression and what treatments are available. Depression is known as a common mental disorder and its effects can cause many individuals to feel desolated, lose interest or pleasure in daily activities, the individual will be remorseful and have feelings of low self-esteem, losing sleep or appetite, impoverished concentration. In accordance to the office for national statistics, “In 2014, 19.7% of the population in the United Kingdom aged 16 and over showed symptoms of depression, a 1.5% increase from 2013, this percentage was greater among females (22.5%) than males (16.8%)”。health problem, according to official statistics, Depression is one of the major components of suicide, it is “estimated that 6,213 suicides took place in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland in 2017.” (Ian Macrory, 2016) Many individuals agree that depression is not a sign of being vulnerable or fragile. With the correct treatment and care, many individuals with depression are able to make a full recovery and move on with their lives.The cognitive approach towards depression, suggests that people with depression tend to have a pessimistic view of the world, in theory this is called a negative schema. it is believed to have been acquired during childhood. These factors are usually activated when a new situation arises which resembles the original encounter of when the schema was learned. Professor Aaron Beck a psychiatrist from America illustrated how becoming depressed works by creating three defective points (Schemas) which would control peoples thinking. One of the schemas would be self-worth, the individual would have feelings of inadequacy that they don’t fit in at all. Self esteem would be another schema and would result in the individual thinking of all his/her experiences are failures or defeats, the last schema is future, the individual’s future is pointless. Altogether all of the themes mentioned are part of the Negative Cognitive Triad, when these beliefs are present in someone’s cognition, depression is very likely to occur (if it hasn’t already occurred). Beyond the negative content of dysfunctional thoughts, these beliefs can also warp and shape what someone pays attention to. Aaron Beck asserted that depressed people pay selective attention to aspects of their environments that confirm what they already do know. This failure to pay attention properly is known as faulty information processing. Particular failures of information processing are very characteristic of the depressed mind. One example would be that people with depression, would exhibit choosy attention while gathering information, which indicates to the individual’s negative expectations. Ellis took a different approach from Beck to explaining depression, started to explain that good mental health is the result of rational thinking and allows people to be happy and pain free, whereas depression is the result of irrational thinking.