心理学论文代写 社会学习理论

虽然社会学习理论提出行为是在环境中习得的,但它阐明了人们可能发现自己所处的社会互动和情境会导致行为被习得(参考)。因此,学习的发展可能通过三个主要的过程:观察、模仿和建模,而不像心理动力学方法。Kobus(2013)指出,许多健康风险,如吸毒和吸烟,往往受到个人与朋友和家人关系的影响,尤其是在儿童和青少年时期。在青少年时期,青少年开始表现出全身的荷尔蒙变化,因此可能会试图发现自己的身份。因此,如果从婴儿期到儿童期的任何负面经历都没有得到解决,例如没有得到父母的指导,这可能会导致儿童误入歧途,加入坏的群体,而这些坏的群体反过来又决定了他们的个性和行为(Wise 2000)。他最后指出,在这一阶段,恋母情结的欲望可能会在意识的无意识部分再次产生,从而影响青少年离开家庭转向同伴。Li和Guo(2016)指出,与吸烟者朋友频繁而亲密的互动可能会使不吸烟者变成吸烟者。一个典型的例子可能发生的情况下,一个孩子在他/她的早期青少年时期划分为一个非吸烟者但是有协作和一群烟民,会更容易学会抽烟的方式融入集团,因此防止被欺负。因此,青少年儿童在成年后可能由于得不到父母的保护和咨询而成为经常吸烟者。大量研究发现,青少年吸烟与同伴影响之间存在着巨大的关系。“在一项研究中,有10%的儿童成为了有尼古丁依赖症状的人,他们在第一次吸烟的两天和第一个月内分别吸了25天和10天。”据报道,在开始吸烟的一年内,儿童将会吸入与成人相同数量的尼古丁,并且很难停止。Krohn et al.(1985)认为,尽管关于家庭影响和物质使用之间的关系的实证研究很少,但是,他澄清说,将父母视为吸烟行为榜样的孩子更有可能在成年后模仿父母的行为。然而,榜样并不是决定一个孩子将来行为的唯一因素。Darling and Cumisille(2003)指出,在父母双方都吸烟的家庭中长大的孩子更有可能获得吸烟的基本知识,如点烟,从而形成已习得的行为,并在以后的生活中进行实践。

心理学论文代写 社会学习理论

Though the social learning theory proposes that actions are acquired in the environment however it clarifies that the social interaction and situation in which people may find themselves present can lead a behaviour to be learnt (reference). The development of thus learning may result through three main processes: observation, imitation and modelling unlike the psychodynamic approach. Kobus (2013) stated that many health risks such as drugs and smoking are often influenced by an individual’s relationships with friends and families particularly during the childhood and adolescent stage. During adolescent stage young teenagers begun to demonstrate hormonal changes throughout their body and as a result may try to discover their identity. Therefore, if any negative experiences pertaining from infancy to childhood are not resolved such as failure of parental guidance– this may lead a child astray by joining bad groups which in return subsequently determine their personality and behaviour (Wise 2000). He concluded by pointing out that during this stage oedipal desires may result over again in the unconscious part of the mind influence the adolescent to depart from families to peers. Li and Guo (2016) specified that frequent and close interaction with smoker friends may turn a non -smoker into a smoker. A typical example may occur in a situation whereby a child in his /her early teenage years classified as a non -smoker but however who have a collaboration with a group of smokers, would more likely to learn how to smoke as way to fit in the group and therefore prevent being bullied. The teenage child may therefore become a regular smoker in their adulthood with the failure of protection and counselling from parents. Numerous studies have found that there is a huge relationship between adolescent smoking and peer influence. “In a study 10% of children who became regularly smokers showed signs of nicotine dependence with two days of first inhaling from a cigarette and 25 within a month. Within a year of starting to smoke, it has been reported that children will be inhaling the same amount of nicotine in adults and have difficulty to stop”. Krohn et al. (1985) argued that though there are few empirical researches regarding the relationship between family influence and substance use unlike peer influence, however, he clarified that a child who sees a parent as a role model smoking would more likely to imitate thus behaviour in their adulthood. However, role model is not solely that factor that would determine how a child behave in the future. Darling and Cumisille (2003) pointed out that a child brought up in a family observing both parents smoking is more likely to obtain knowledge on the rudiments of smoking such as lighting cigarette and therefore enact the learnt behaviour and thereby practice it in later life.

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