开始局部（opening paragraph）——说出文中的要点、核心问题。 解释部门（Body paragraphs）——围绕主题发展叙述、探讨。结尾部分（concluding paragraphs）——对全文的总结跟概括。要做到全文中心突出、段落之间必须是有机地联系，内容完整、连贯。前后响应，祛除与主题无关的内容的英语写作技巧。主题句是对全文的概括，是文章的主旨。它能在文章中起到“画龙点睛”的作用。通常主题句出现在一篇文章的开头，而后，全文对主题句所提出的内容进行阐明，扩展。在之前我们写过一篇文章《英语连接词和句子来帮你写高分essay 》
表递进moreover, in addition, what is more，furthermore, also, then, besides, etc.
表转折however, nevertheless, on the other hand, on the contrary, etc.
表层次on the one hand, … on the other hand; first, … second, … finally;
表强调firstly, … secondly, … finally …; first, … then … etc.
表强调in fact, indeed, actually, as a matter of fact, obviously, apparently,
表结果evidently, first of all, undoubtedly, without any shadow of doubt, etc.
表结尾therefore, as a result, then, consequently, accordingly, thus, etc.
表例举in a word, in conclusion, therefore, in short, to sum up, etc.
表强调still, Indeed, apparently, oddly enough, of course, after all, significantly, interestingly, also, above all, surely, certainly, undoubtedly, in any case, anyway, above all, in fact, especially. Obviously, clearly.
表比较like, similarly, likewise, in the same way, in the same manner, equally.
表对比by contrast, on the contrary, while, whereas, on the other hand, unlike, instead, but, conversely, different from, however, nevertheless, otherwise, whereas, unlike, yet, in contrast.
表列举for example, for instance, such as, take …for example. Except (for), to illustrate.
表时间later, next, then, finally, at last, eventually, meanwhile, from now on, at the same time, for the time being, in the end, immediately, in the meantime, in the meanwhile, recently, soon, now and then, during, nowadays, since, lately, as soon as, afterwards, temporarily, earlier, now, after a while. first after a few days eventually at that time in the meantime meanwhile afterward from then on
表顺序first, second, third, then, finally, to begin with, first of all, in the first place, last, next, above all, last but not the least, first and most important.
表可能presumably, probably, perhaps.
表解释in other words, in fact, as a matter of fact, that is, namely, in simpler terms.
表递进What is more, in addition, and, besides, also, furthermore, too, moreover, furthermore, as well as, additionally, again.
表让步although, after all, in spite of…, despite, even if, even though, though, admittedly, whatever may happen.
表转折however, rather than, instead of, but, yet, on the other hand, unfortunately. whereas
表原因for this reason, due to, thanks to, because, because of, as, since, owing to.
表结果as a result, thus, hence, so, therefore, accordingly, consequently, as consequence.
表总结on the whole, in conclusion, in a word, to sum up, in brief, in summary, to conclude, to
summarize, in short.
Mostly, occasionally, currently, naturally, mainly, exactly, evidently, frankly, commonly, for this purpose, to a large extent, for most of us, in many cases, in this case,
表空间near to far from in the front of beside behind to the right to the left on the other side of
表举例 for example to name a few, say , such as
表递进in addition furthermore what’s more what’s worse
表对比whereas while as opposed to by contrast by comparison
表示时间与频率的词汇:in general, every, some, after, on the whole, usually, most, at other times, in most cases, frequently, main, finally, as a rule, rarely, before, meanwhile.
表示附加的词:additionally, as well as, just as, again, along with, also, further, furthermore, likewise, in the same manner, in the same way, in addition to,
引出例子:for example, namely, for instance, as an example, that is
表示转折:although, instead, rather than, but, nevertheless, though, however, on the other hand, otherwise
得出结论:all in all, in consequence, in brief, as a result, the point is, in conclusion, therefore, hence, in sum.
表示增加的过渡词：also，and，and then，too，in addition，furthermore，moreover，again，on top of that，another，first second third等。
表示时间顺序的过渡词：now，then，before，after，afterwards，earlier，later，immediately，soon，next，in a few days，gradually，suddenly，finally等。
表示空间顺序的过渡词：near（to），far（from），in front of，behind，beside，beyond，above，below，to the right （left），around，outside等。
表示比较的过渡词：in the same way，just like，just as等。
表示对照的过渡词：but，still，yet，however，on the other hand，on the contrary，in spite of，even though等。
表示结 果 和 原 因 的 过 渡 词：because，since，so，as a result，therefore，hence，thus，otherwise等。
表示目的的过渡词：for this reason，for this purpose，so that等。
表示强调的过渡词：in fact，indeed，surely，necessarily，certainly，without any doubt，truly，to repeat，above all，most important等。
表示解释说明的过渡词：for example，in fact，in this case，for actually等。
表示总结的过渡词：finally，at last，in conclusion，as I have shown，in other word，in brief，in short，in general，on the whole，as has been stated等
in addition, furthermore, again, also, besides, moreover, what’s more, similarly, next, finally.
比较(Comparison) in the same way, likewise, similarly, equally, in comparison, just as
对照(Contrast) whereas, in contrast, on the other hand, instead, however, nevertheless, unlike, even though, on the contrary, while
因果(Cause and effect) because, because of, for, since, due to, owing to, thanks to, as a result (of), accordingly, hence, so, thus
强调(Emphasis) certainly, above all, indeed, of course, surely, actually, as a matter of fact, chiefly, especially, primarily, in particular, undoubtedly, absolutely, most important
6.让步(Concession) although, though, after all, in spite of, nevertheless, still, provided, while it is true….
7.例证(Exemplification) for example, for instance, that is, namely, such as, in other words, in this case, by way of illustration.
总结(Conclusion) to sum up, to conclude, in a word, in short, in brief, all in all, in all, to put it in a nut shell, in summary
推断(Inference) therefore, as a result(of), consequently, accordingly, so, otherwise
时间和空间(Time and space) afterward, after, first, later, then, soon, outside, near, beyond, above, below, on the right(left), in the middle, opposite, in front of
first, second, third, firstly, secondly, thirdly, first, then / next, after that / next, finally / last / last but not least, and equally important, on (the) one hand…, on the other hand…, besides / what’s more / in addition (to
now, at present, recently, after, afterwards, after that, after a while, in a few days, at first, at the beginning (of sth.), to begin with, to start with
later, next, finally, immediately, soon, suddenly = all of a sudden, at that moment, as soon as, the moment…, form now on, from then on, gradually
at the same time = meanwhile, till, not…until, before, after, when, while, as, during
now, in addition, for example, for instance, in this case, in fact / as a matter of fact / actually, frankly speaking, in other words, in simpler terms, that is to say, to put it differently
but, however, while, though, yet, still, nevertheless, or, otherwise, on the contrary / on the other hand, in spite of… / despite the fact that…, even though, except (for), instead, in stead of, of course, after all, even so
or, and, also, too, not only … but also…, as well as, both… and…, either …or…, neither…nor…
原因：because, because of = thanks to… = due to… = owing to…, since = now that, as, for,
结果：so, therefore, thus, hence, as a result (of), on this / that account, so…that, such…that, in this way
as (so) long as, on condition that, if, unless
though， although， as， even if， even though， whether …or…， however， whoever, whatever, whichever, wherever, whenever, no matter how (who, what, which, where)
for example, for instance, such as…, like…, take… for example
be similar to, similarly, the same as, in contrast, compared with (to)…, just like
for this reason, for this purpose, so that, in order that, in order to, so as to,
indeed, in fact, surely, certainly, no doubt, without any doubt, truly, obviously, above all
in a word, in short, in brief, in summary, on the whole, generally speaking, in general, in my opinion, as far as I am concerned, as what has been mentioned, to sum up, to conclude, in conclusion
Again, also, then, besides, further, furthermore, moreover, next, in addition等，如：
① Jason teaches diligently. Besides, he writes a lot.
② English is a useful language. For one thing, it is an official language in the UN. Then, it is widely used in business, science and technology.
表示“反意见”： But, however, still, yet, after all, for all that, in spite of, on the contrary, on the other hand等，如：
③ Jim is intelligent but lazy.
④ Singapore is not a big country. On the contrary, it is very small.
Therefore, so, hence, thus, accordingly, consequently, as a result 等，如：
⑤ Some people are over-ambitious. As a result, they are usually unhappy.
⑥ Tom did not work hard; hence, he failed.
Likewise, similarly, in a like manner 等，如：
⑦ You cannot writes without a pen. Likewise, you cannot cook without rice.
⑧ No one is allowed to speak Mandarin in an English class. Similarly, no one is allowed to speak English in a
For example, in other words, for instance, that is 等，如：
⑨ There are some common errors in his composition. For instance, it is wrong to use “he” to replace “the queen”.
To sum up, in brief, in short, on the whole, to conclude 等，如：
⑩ Some say Singapore is a nice place to live in. Others say it is not so nice. It is too competitive. In short, some like Singapore; some do not.
and, furthermore, more than that, also, likewise, moreover, in addition, what is more, for instance, for example
although, however, on the contrary, but, in spite of, nevertheless, yet, otherwise, despite
first, second, third, and so on, then, after, before, next
as a result, for, thus, because, for this reason, so, therefore, as, since, consequently, on account of
as a result, finally, therefore, accordingly, in short, thus, consequently, in conclusion, so, in brief, in a word
As far as I am concerned, the advantages of … outweigh its disadvantages.
Nevertheless, the disadvantages of … is undeniable.
To sum up/ In general/ On the whole/ In brief/ In short/ In a word, it is true that … bring about both positive and negative results. But we can try our best to reduce the negative influence to the least extent.
Obviously, in every aspect, …
This diagram unfolds a clear comparison between…and…
As to the other three, though the growth rates were not so high, they were indeed remarkable and impressive.
first, firstly to begin with second, secondly to start with
third, thirdly what’s more
also and then
and equally important
besides in addition
further in the first place
last last but not the least
for example for instance
to illustrate as an illustration
as a matter of fact frankly speaking
in this case namely
in other words
in summary in a word
in brief in conclusion
to conclude in fact
indeed in short
in other words of course
it is true specially
namely in all
that is to summarize
thus as has been said
altogether in other words
finally in simpler terms
in particular that is
on the whole to put it differently
of course indeed
above all most important
emphasis certainly in fact
in spite of all the same
even so after all
concession granted naturally
in comparison likewise
in the same way
by contrast although
at the same time but
in contrast nevertheless
notwithstanding on the contrary
on the other hand otherwise
despite the fact that even so
even though for all that
however in spite of
after a while afterward
and then as long as
at last at length
at that time before
furthermore in addition
in the first place in the past
since so far
until until now
in general, to some extent, in my view, as for me, as far as I am concerned, obviously, in brief, on the whole
similarly, on the contrary, on the one hand, on the other hand, otherwise, in sharp contrast, but, however, yet, nevertheless
as a case in point, such as, first of all, to begin with, furthermore, besides, in addition, for one thing, for another
because (of), since, for, owing to, thanks to, as a result of, consequently, for the reason that, therefore, hence
although, even though, in spite of, despite
surely, obviously, particularly, in deed, needless to say, most important of all
in addition, also, moreover, besides，what’s more
immediately, meanwhile, presently, shortly, since, soon, temporarily, while
as, as if, the way，by
so that, lest，in order that
First ,firstly, to begin with, further, in the first place
second, secondly, to start with, still, furthermore
third, thirdly, what is more, last, last but not least
also, and then, next, besides
and equally important too moreover
besides in addition finally
by contrast although though yet
at the same time but despite the fact that even so
in contrast nevertheless even though for all that
notwithstanding on the contrary however in spite of
on the other hand otherwise instead still
therefore consequently because of for the reason
thus hence due to owing to
so accordingly thanks to on this account
since as on that account in this way
for as a result as a consequence
still nevertheless concession granted naturally
in spite of all the same of course despite
even so after all
5)表递近：furthermore moreover likewise what is more
besides also not only…but also…
too in addition
for example for instance for one thing that is
to illustrate as an illustration a case in point
as a matter of fact frankly speaking in this case namely
in other words
in summary in a word thus as has been said
in brief in conclusion altogether in other words
to conclude in fact finally in simpler terms
indeed in short in particular that is
in other words of course on the whole to put it differently
namely in all therefore to summarize
表并列补充关系: what is more, besides, also, as well, moreover, furthermore, in addition
表转折对比关系: but, however, yet, instead, on the other hand, on the contrary, although, different from, in contrast to, despite, in spite of, whereas, un?鄄like, nevertheless, not only…but also, here…there, years ago…today, this…that, the former…the latter, then…now, the first…whereas the second, once…now, on the one hand…on the other , some…others
表因果关系: since, as, because （of）, for, so, thus, therefore, as a result, so that
表条件关系: if, on the condition （that）, as long as, unless, or else
表时间关系: when, after, before, until, as soon as, later, afterwards, soon, lately, recently, since, from then on, eventually, in the meantime, then, suddenly, at the same time, next, early this morning/year/century, after an interval, now, after, presently, later, after?鄄ward, somewhat later, finally, at last, all of a sudden
表特定的顺序关系: above all, first of all, firstly, first, secondly, the , next, finally, in the end, at last
表换一种方式表达: in other words, that is to say, to put it another way
表举例说明: for instance, for example, like, such as
表陈述事实: in fact, actually, as a matter of fact, to tell you the truth
表总结: on the whole, in short, all in all, general, in a word, in conclusion, in closing, in summary
1.As far as …is concerned 就……而言
2.It goes without saying that… 不言而喻…
3.It can be said with certainty that… 可以肯定地说……
4.As the proverb says，…… 正如谚语所说的，……
5.It has to be noticed that… 它必须注意到，…
6.It’s generally recognized that… 它普遍认为…
7.It’s likely that … 这可能是因为…
8.It’s hardly that… 这是很难的……
9.It’s hardly too much to say that… 几乎没有太多的说…
10.What calls for special attention is that…需要特别注意的是…
11.There’s no denying the fact that…毫无疑问，无可否认
12.Nothing is more important than the fact that… 没有什么比这更重要的是…
13.what’s far more important is that… 更重要的是…
1.A case in point is … 一个典型的例子是…
2.As is often the case…由于通常情况下…
3.As stated in the previous paragraph，… 如前段所述，…
4.But the problem is not so simple. Therefore 然而问题并非如此简单，所以……
5.But it’s a pity that… 但遗憾的是…
6.For all that…对于这一切……
In spite of the fact that…尽管事实……
7.Further, we hold opinion that… 此外，我们坚持认为，…
8.However , the difficulty lies in…然而，困难在于…
9.Similarly, we should pay attention to… 同样，我们要注意…
view of the present station.鉴于目前形势
12.As has been mentioned above…正如上面所提到的…
in this respect, we may as well (say) 从这个角度上我们可以说
14.However, we have to look at the other side of the coin, that is… 然而我们还得看到事物的另一方面，即 …
1.I will conclude by saying… 最后我要说…
2.Therefore, we have the reason to believe that…因此，我们有理由相信…
3.All things considered,总而言之 It may be safely said that…它可以有把握地说……
4.Therefore, in my opinion, it’s more advisable…因此，在我看来，更可取的是…
5.From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that….通过以上讨论，我们可以得出结论…
6.The data/statistics/figures lead us to the conclusion that….通过数据我们得到的结论是，….
7.It can be concluded from the discussion that…从中我们可以得出这样的结论
8.From my point of view, it would be better if…在我看来……也许更好。
1.Let’s take…to illustrate this. 我们可以用…来说明这些。 2.let’s take the above chart as an example to illustrate this.我们可以用上面的图标作为例子来说明这些。
3. Here is one more example. 再举一个例子
4.Take … for example. 以…为例
5.The same is true of….上述情况也适用于……
6.This offers a typical instance of….这(为我们)提供了一个典型的例子…
7.We may quote a common example of….我们可以举一个常见例子(加以说明···)
8.Just think of….想想…
1.Some people think that …. 有些人认为…
2.To be frank, I can not agree with their opinion for the reasons below. 坦率地说，我不能同意他们的意见，理由如下。
3.For years, … has been seen as …, but things are quite different now.多年来，……一直被视为……，但今天的情况有很大的不同。
4.I believe the title statement is valid because…. 我认为这个论点是正确的，因为…
5. I cannot entirely agree with the idea that ….我无法完全同意这一观点的… I believe….
6. My argument for this view goes as follows.我对这个问题的看法如下。
7. Along with the development of…, more and more….随着……的发展，越来越多…
8.There is a long-running debate as to whether….有一个长期运行的辩论，是否…
9.It is commonly/generally/widely/ believed /held/accepted/recognized that….它通常是认为…
10.As far as I am concerned, I completely agree with the former/ the latter.就我而言，我完全同意前者/后者。
11.Before giving my opinion, I think it is essential to look at the argument of both sides.在给出我的观点之前，我想有必要看看双方的论据。
1.A is completely / totally / entirely different from B.A和B是完全不同的。
2. A and B are different in some/every way / respect / aspect. A和B在有些方面/所有方面/都不一样。
3. A and B differ in…. A和B在…是不同的
4. A differs from B in….A和B在…不同
5. The difference between A and B is/lies in/exists in…..A和B的差异在于…
6. Compared with/In contrast to/Unlike A, B….与A相比,B…/与A相反,B…/与A不同的是,B…
7.A…,on the other hand,/in contrast,/while/whereas B… A…，从另一方面说/相比之下/然而/反之B……
8. While it is generally believed that A …, I believe B….虽然大多人认为A…我认为B…
9.Despite their similarities, A and B are also different.尽管他们有相似之处，A和B还是不同的。
10. Both A and B …. However, A…; on the other hand, B…. A和B都…，然而，A…，从一方面说，B….
11. The most striking difference is that A…, while B….最显著的区别是A…，然而B…
1.There are several reasons for…, but in general, they come down to three major ones.有几个原因……，但一般，他们可以归结为三个主要的。
2.There are many factors that may account for…, but the following are the most typical ones.有许多因素可能占…，但以下是最典型的。
3. Many ways can contribute to solving this problem, but the following ones may be most effective.有很多方法可以解决这个问题，但下面的可能是最有效的。
4. Generally, the advantages can be listed as follows.一般来说，这些优势可以列举如下。
5. The reasons are as follows.原因如下。
1.Because/Since we read the book, we have learned a lot.因为/自从我们入了这本书，我们学到了很多。
2. If we read the book, we would learn a lot.如果我们读这本书，我们能学到很多。
3. We read the book; as a result / therefore / thus / hence / consequently / for this reason / because of this, we’ve learned a lot.我们读这本书，结果是/因此/从而/因此/为此/因为这些，我们学到了很多。
4. As a result of /Because of/Due to/Owing to reading the book, we’ve learned a lot.因为阅读这本书，我们已经学到了很多。
5.The cause of/reason for/overweight is eating too much.超重的起因/原因是吃太多了。
6.Overweight is caused by/due to/because of eating too much.超重因为吃太多了。
7.The effect/consequence/result of eating too much is overweight. 吃太多的结果就是超重。
8.Eating too much causes/results in/leads to overweight. 吃太多导致超重。